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People with free will "decide to cause suffering and act in other evil ways", states Boyd, and it is they who make that choice, not God.This explanation does not completely address the problem of evil, because some suffering and evil is not a result of conscious choice, but is the result of ignorance or natural causes (e.g.In the fire a fawn is trapped, horribly burned, and lies in terrible agony for several days before death relieves its suffering." The evidential version of the problem of evil (also referred to as the probabilistic or inductive version) seeks to show that the existence of evil, although logically consistent with the existence of God, counts against or lowers the probability of the truth of theism.As an example, a critic of Plantinga's idea of "a mighty nonhuman spirit" causing natural evils may concede that the existence of such a being is not logically impossible but argue that due to lacking scientific evidence for its existence this is very unlikely and thus it is an unconvincing explanation for the presence of natural evils.Some solutions propose that omnipotence does not require the ability to actualize the logically impossible."Greater good" responses to the problem make use of this insight by arguing for the existence of goods of great value which God cannot actualize without also permitting evil, and thus that there are evils he cannot be expected to prevent despite being omnipotent.Among the most popular versions of the "greater good" response are appeals to the apologetics of free will.Theologians will argue that since no one can fully understand God's ultimate plan, no one can assume that evil actions do not have some sort of greater purpose.
The problem of evil is often formulated in two forms: the logical problem of evil and the evidential problem of evil.
Process theology and open theism are other positions that limit God's omnipotence and/or omniscience (as defined in traditional theology).
Dystheism is the belief that God is not wholly good. Rowe's example of natural evil: "In some distant forest lightning strikes a dead tree, resulting in a forest fire.
There are also many discussions of evil and associated problems in other philosophical fields, such as secular ethics, The experiential problem is the difficulty in believing in a concept of a loving God when confronted by suffering or evil in the real world, such as from epidemics, or wars, or murder, or rape or terror attacks wherein innocent children, women, men or a loved one becomes a victim.
This argument is of the form modus tollens, and is logically valid: If its premises are true, the conclusion follows of necessity.