Recommdations for updating commodity flow study

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Apostolic letters do not typically establish laws, but rather should be thought of an exercise of the Pope’s office as ruler and head of the Church.Paul VI issued Octogemisa adveniens in 1971 as an apostolic letter because it was addressed to one person, Cardinal Maurice Roy.

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An example is Benedict XVI’s Summorum Pontificum, which relaxed restrictions on celebration of the traditional mass.(Adhortatio apostolica) – An apostolic exhortation is a formal instruction issued by a pope to a community, urging some specific activity.

Lower in import than an encyclical or apostolic letter, an exhortation does not define doctrine.

An example is John Paul II’s Familiaris Consortio, affirming the meaning and role of marriage and the family.

Examples include Leo XIII’s Rerum Novarum, first introducing Catholic social teaching, and John Paul II’s Centesimus Annus, expanding on the application of the social teaching of Rerum Novarum in the post-Cold War world.

(Litterae apostolicae) – Apostolic letters are issued by popes to address administrative questions, such as approving religious institutes, but have also been used to exhort the faithful on doctrinal issues.

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