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You can find a more detailed report about their research on the .
The third was a multi-parametric mechanical test based on five different mechanical parameters linked to the voltage of the wire.
Research in the 1980s suggests the image was "forged" on the cloth between 12, , the BBC reports.
Since the shroud and "all its facets" still cannot be replicated using today's top-notch technology, researchers suggest it is impossible that the original image could have been created in either period.
ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energies and Sustainable Economic Development) published a report after 5 years of research conducted on the Shroud, in which it was determined that the wattage of UV radiation required to produce the image cannot be reproduce by even today's technology.
Description: Nearly two decades later, whenever carbon 14 dating is discussed in high school or college classrooms, students are likely to raise a hand and ask some pro... Nearly two decades later, whenever carbon 14 dating is discussed in high school or college classrooms, students are likely to raise a hand and ask some probing questions: What about the Shroud of Turin? If not, how could so many scientists from so many reputable radiocarbon dating laboratories screw up so badly?
The carbon dated samples were taken from this very same outside edge, which would accurately reflect the period of the added material, but not that of the original main Shroud body.
Whiting describes reports of fibers detected from an area of cloth directly adjoining the tested samples retaining a gum coating not found on any of the fibers from the main part of the shroud.
"Final results show that the Shroud fibres examined produced the following dates, all of which are 95% certain and centuries away from the medieval dating obtained with Carbon-14 testing in 1988: the dates given to the Shroud after FT-IR testing, is 300 BC 400, 200 BC 500 after Raman testing and 400 AD 400 after multi-parametric mechanical testing.
Radio carbon dating carried out in 1988 was performed on an area of the relic that was repaired in the 16th century, according to Ray Rogers, who helped lead the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STRP).
He came to his conclusion after re-examining a theory from two amateur scientists that he had earlier dismissed as being from "the lunatic fringe".
The identified coating appeared to be a gum arabic substance.
Gum arabic was routinely used during re-weaving repairs to manage the threads.