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Despite the need for high programming and erasing voltages, virtually all flash chips today require only a single supply voltage and produce the high voltages using on-chip charge pumps.
Over half the energy used by a 1.8 V NAND flash chip is lost in the charge pump itself.
This, in turn, changes the drain-source current that flows through the transistor for a given gate voltage, which is ultimately used to encode a binary value.
The Fowler-Nordheim tunneling effect is reversible, so electrons can be added to or removed from the floating gate, processes traditionally known as writing and erasing.
Multi-level cell (MLC) devices, including triple-level cell (TLC) devices, can store more than one bit per cell.
In single-level cell (SLC) devices, each cell stores only one bit of information.Its endurance may be from as little as 100 erase cycles for an on-chip flash memory, NOR-based flash was the basis of early flash-based removable media; Compact Flash was originally based on it, though later cards moved to less expensive NAND flash.NAND flash has reduced erase and write times, and requires less chip area per cell, thus allowing greater storage density and lower cost per bit than NOR flash; it also has up to 10 times the endurance of NOR flash.The two main types of flash memory are named after the NAND and NOR logic gates.The individual flash memory cells exhibit internal characteristics similar to those of the corresponding gates.