Validating the ds1 remote agent experiment

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IGLA was used for the Soyuz T spacecraft; KURS performed docking maneuvers onboard the Progress M and Soyuz TM spacecraft [7]. S.) attempted autonomous docking in 2005, resulting in a failure, with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Demonstrator to Test Future Autonomous Rendezvous Technologies in Orbit (DART) mission. Launched in 1996, the craft started Martian exploration in July of 1997.Planning for Sojourner was performed on Earth and uploaded to the craft.In 1975, with a need for additional planning capabilities, they started work on DEVISER system to create and transmit commands to the Voyager spacecraft.

While the root causes of these misgivings are beyond the scope of this paper, it does attempt to determine what can be done to overcome them.

The Soviet Union, it would appear, embraced the use of autonomy even in situations where humans were present to prospectively perform the work. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) demonstrated this capability successfully in 2007 with ASTRO and Next Sat [8,9].

Their spacecraft docking technologies, IGLA (first demonstrated for in-space docking in 1986) and its replacement KURS (first used in 1989), were autonomous based on radar and calculated the relative position and orientation based on differences in signal strength between multiple antennas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Sojourner Mars rover was the first demonstration of rover control for planetary science.

Despite robotic exploration of space and artificial intelligence evolving during the same period (from the 1950s to present), the two did not meet in application until the early 1970s [1].

The consideration of the use of autonomous technologies for space exploration has been ongoing, with progressively greater numbers of missions incorporating autonomous control [2,3,4]; however, handing over control to a machine can, quite literally, create “terror” for human operators who would prefer to be teleoperating (remotely controlling) the spacecraft [5].

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